A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of a weak immune system, such as due to having
Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count; T cell count
How the Test is Performed
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is necessary.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.
Why the Test is Performed
T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful substances, such as bacteria or viruses.
Your health care provider may order this test if you have signs of a weak immune system (
One type of T cell is the CD4 cell, or "helper cell." People with HIV/AIDS have regular T-cell tests to check their CD4 cell counts. The results help the provider monitor the disease and its treatment.
Normal results vary depending on the type of T-cell tested.
In adults, a normal CD4 cell count ranges from 500 to 1,200 cells/mm3 (0.64 to 1.18 × 109/L).
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Higher than normal T-cell levels may be due to:
- Cancer, such as
acute lymphocytic leukemiaor multiple myeloma
- Infections, such as hepatitis or
Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to:
- Immune system diseases, such as HIV/AIDS
- Steroid treatment
There is very little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
- Multiple punctures to locate veins
This test is often performed on people with a weakened immune system. Therefore, the risk for infection may be higher than when blood is drawn from a person with a healthy immune system.
Berliner N. Leukocytosis and leukopenia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 158.
Holland SM, Gallin JI. Evaluation of the patient with suspected immunodeficiency. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 12.
McPherson RA, Massey HD. Overview of the immune system and immunologic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 44
Review Date: 14/07/2021
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright ©2019 A.D.A.M., Inc., as modified by University of California San Francisco. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
Information developed by A.D.A.M., Inc. regarding tests and test results may not directly correspond with information provided by UCSF Health. Please discuss with your doctor any questions or concerns you may have.